Botulism Challenge Studies of a Modified Atmosphere Package for Fresh Mussels: Inoculated Pack Studies
Abstract:A series of botulism challenge studies were performed to determine the possibility of production of botulinum toxin in mussels (Mytilus edulis) held under a commercial high-oxygen (60 to 65% O2), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) condition. Spore mixtures of six strains of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were introduced into mussel MAP packages receiving different packaging buffers with or without the addition of lactic acid bacteria. Dye studies and package flipping trials were conducted to ensure internalization of spores by packed mussels. Inoculated mussel packages were stored at normal (4°C) and abusive (12°C) temperatures for 21 and 13 days, respectively, which were beyond the packaged mussels' intended shelf life. Microbiological and chemical analyses were conducted at predetermined intervals (a total of five sampling times at each temperature), including total aerobic plate counts, C. botulinum counts, lactic acid bacterial counts, package headspace gas composition, pH of packaging buffer and mussel meat, and botulinum toxin assays of packaging buffer and mussel meat. Results revealed that C. botulinum inoculated in fresh mussels packed under MAP packaging did not produce toxin, even at an abusive storage temperature and when held beyond their shelf life. No evidence was found that packaging buffers or gas composition influenced the lack of botulinum toxin production in packed mussels.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Maine Shellfish R + D, 7 Creek Lane, Damariscotta, Maine 04543, USA. email@example.com 2: National Institute for Microbial Forensics and Food and Agricultural Biosecurity, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, 127 Noble Research Center, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA 3: Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797, USA
Publication date: June 1, 2012
- IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website). The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.
Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at www.foodprotection.org.
- Information for Authors
- Submit a Paper
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- Information for Advertisers
- ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites