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Comparison of Ozone and Chlorine in Low Concentrations as Sanitizing Agents of Chicken Carcasses in the Water Immersion Chiller

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Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the use of chlorine or ozone as sanitizing agents in the water of chicken immersion chilling, using the residual levels usually applied in Brazil (1.5 ppm), comparing the effects of these treatments on the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of carcasses. Chicken carcasses were chilled in water (4°C) with similar residual levels of ozone and chlorine until reaching temperatures below 7°C (around 45 min). The stability of carcasses was assessed during 15 days of storage at 2± 1°C. Microbiological, surface color (L*, a*, b* parameters), pH value, lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances index), and sensory evaluation (on a 9-point hedonic scale for odor and appearance) analyses were carried out. The presence of Salmonella was not detected, coagulase-positive staphylococci counts were below 102 CFU/ml of rinse fluid, and Escherichia coli and total coliform counts were below 105 CFU/ml of rinse fluid until the end of the storage period for both treatments. Psychrotrophic microorganism counts did not differ (P > 0.05) between chlorine and ozone treatments, and both values were near 109 CFU/ml of rinse fluid after 15 days at 4 ± 1°C. pH values did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05) or during the storage period (P > 0.05). In addition, neither chlorine nor ozone treatment showed differences (P > 0.05) in the lipid oxidation of carcasses; however, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances index of both treatments increased (P ≤ 0.05) during the storage period, reaching values of approximately 0.68 mg of malonaldehyde per kg. Samples from both treatments did not differ (P > 0.05) in their acceptance scores for odor and overall appearance, but in the evaluation of color, ozone showed an acceptance score significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that for the chlorine treatment. In general, under the conditions tested, ozone showed results similar to the results for chlorine in the disinfection of chicken carcasses in the immersion chilling, which may indicate its use as a substitute for chlorine in poultry slaughterhouses.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-288

Affiliations: 1: University of São Paulo, Food Engineering Department, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering—FZEA, Duque de Caxias Norte 225, Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. trindadema@usp.br 2: University of São Paulo, Food Engineering Department, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering—FZEA, Duque de Caxias Norte 225, Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil 3: CENTRUM Católica—Centro de Negocios, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru, Jr. Daniel Alomía Robles 125, Urbanización Los A ´ lamos de Monterrico—Surco, Lima, Peru

Publication date: June 1, 2012

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    First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

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