Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on Eggshells by Using Wireless Biosensors

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This article presents rapid, sensitive, direct detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on eggshells by using wireless magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors. The biosensor consists of a freestanding, strip-shaped ME resonator as the signal transducer and the E2 phage as the biomolecular recognition element that selectively binds with Salmonella Typhimurium. This ME biosensor is a type of mass-sensitive biosensor that can be wirelessly actuated into mechanical resonance by an externally applied timevarying magnetic field. When the biosensor binds with Salmonella Typhimurium, the mass of the sensor increases, resulting in a decrease in the sensor's resonant frequency. Multiple E2 phage–coated biosensors (measurement sensors) were placed on eggshells spiked with Salmonella Typhimurium of various concentrations (1.6 to 1.6 × 107 CFU/cm2). Control sensors without phage were also used to compensate for environmental effects and nonspecific binding. After 20 min in a humidity-controlled chamber (95%) to allow binding of the bacteria to the sensors to occur, the resonant frequency of the sensors was wirelessly measured and compared with their initial resonant frequency. The resonant frequency change of the measurement sensors was found to be statistically different from that of the control sensors down to 1.6 × 102 CFU/cm2, the detection limit for this work. In addition, scanning electron microscopy imaging verified that the measured resonant frequency changes were directly related to the number of bound cells on the sensor surface. The total assay time of the presented methodology was approximately 30 min, facilitating rapid detection of Salmonella Typhimurium without any preceding sampling procedures.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-339

Affiliations: 1: Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA., Email: yzc0012@tigermail.auburn.edu 2: Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA 3: Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA

Publication date: April 1, 2012

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