Virolysis of Feline Calicivirus and Human GII.4 Norovirus following Chlorine Exposure under Standardized Light Soil Disinfection Conditions

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:


The relationship between the infectivity of the feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccine strain F-9 and capsid destruction (virolysis) in response to available chlorine was investigated under standardized light soil disinfection conditions. Virolysis was measured using RNase pretreatment (in order to destroy exposed RNA following chlorine treatment) and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. A comparison between the results of plaque assays and virolysis following exposure of FCV F-9 grown in tissue culture to different concentrations of available chlorine showed a similar log-linear relationship, with >4-log reductions occurring at 48 and 66 ppm, respectively. Three non-epidemiologically linked human GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs) present in dilute clinical samples showed behavior similar to each other and were 10 times more resistant to virolysis than cultured FCV F-9. FCV F-9 when present in dilute human GII.4 samples acquired increased resistance to virolysis approaching that of human NoVs. This study represents a direct comparison between the virolysis of a surrogate virus (FCV F-9) and that of human GII.4 NoVs within the same matrix in response to available chlorine. The results support the view that matrix effects have a significant effect on virus survival.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Leatherhead Food Research, Randalls Road, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7RY, UK 2: Unilever Central Resources Ltd., Colworth Park, Sharnbrook, Bedford, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ, UK 3: Evans Vanodine International plc, Brierley Road, Preston, Lancashire PR5 8AH, UK 4: Department of Microbiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Bowthorpe Road, Norwich, Norfolk NR2 3TX, UK 5: Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections, Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK 6: Premier Analytical Services, The Lord Rank Centre, Lincoln Road, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire HP12 3QS, UK

Publication date: December 1, 2011

More about this publication?
  • IAFP members must first sign in on the right to access full text articles of JFP

    First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to Members and Institutional subscribers. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Information can be obtained by calling +1 800.369.6337; +1 515.276.3344; fax: +1 515.276.8655, E-mail: or Web site:
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more