Investigations on the Metabolism and Potentially Adverse Effects of Ethoxyquin Dimer, a Major Metabolite of the Synthetic Antioxidant Ethoxyquin in Salmon Muscle
Abstract:The feed additive ethoxyquin (EQ) is a commonly used synthetic antioxidant preservative in animal feeds. In farmed Atlantic salmon fillets, EQ residues are present, both as the parent compound and as EQ derivatives. One of the main EQ derivates in fish muscle is an ethoxyquin dimer (EQDM), and the potential toxicity of this metabolite is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolism and potentially toxicological effects of EQDM. A 90-day subchronic exposure study with repeated dietary exposure to EQDM at 12.5 mg/kg of body weight per day was performed with male F344 rats. Hepatic Cyp1a1 mRNA was significantly reduced to <3% of the control in rats fed EQDM, and hepatic Cyp2b1 mRNA was increased to 192%. EQDM increased Gstpi1 mRNA expression to 144% that of the control, but the activity level of this phase II enzyme was reduced. Biomarkers of liver and kidney function did indicate adverse effects of EQDM when F344 rats were fed 12.5 mg/kg of body weight per day. The present study revealed that EQDM produces responses that are comparable to those produced by the parent compound (EQ) in terms of activating the same enzyme systems.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, 5817 Bergen, Norway 2: Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway 3: Nofima Ingrediens AS, Kjerreidviken 16, N-5141 Fyllingsdalen, Norway
Publication date: September 1, 2011
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