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Validation of Food-Grade Salts of Organic Acids as Ingredients To Control Listeria monocytogenes on Pork Scrapple during Extended Refrigerated Storage

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This study was conducted to investigate control of Listeria monocytogenes on pork scrapple during storage at 4°C. In phase I, scrapple was formulated, with or without citrate-diacetate (0.64%), by a commercial processor to contain various solutions or blends of the following antimicrobials: (i) lactate-diacetate (3.0 or 4.0%), (ii) lactate-diacetate-propionate (2.0 or 2.5%), and (iii) levulinate (2.0 or 2.5%). Regardless of whether citrate-diacetate was included in the formulation, without the subsequent addition of the targeted antimicrobials pathogen levels increased ca. 6.4 log CFU/g within the 50-day storage period. In the absence of citrate-diacetate but when the targeted antimicrobials were included in the formulation, pathogen numbers increased by ca. 1.3 to 5.2 log CFU/g, whereas when citrate-diacetate was included with these antimicrobials, pathogen numbers increased only by ca. 0.7 to 2.3 log CFU/g. In phase II, in the absence of citrate-diacetate, when the pH of the lactate-diacetate-propionate blend (2.5%) was adjusted to pH 5.0 or 5.5 pathogen numbers remained unchanged (≤0.5 log CFU/g increase) over 50 days, whereas when citrate-diacetate was included with the lactate-diacetate-propionate blend adjusted to pH 5.0 or 5.5, pathogen numbers decreased by 0.3 to 0.8 log CFU/g. In phase III, when lower concentrations of the lactate-diacetate-propionate blend (1.5 or 1.94%) were adjusted to pH 5.5, pathogen numbers increased by ca. 6.0 and 4.7 log CFU/g, respectively, whereas when the mixture was adjusted to pH 5.0, pathogen numbers increased by ≤0.62 log CFU/g. Thus, scrapple formulated with lactate-diacetate-propionate (1.5 and 1.94% at pH 5.0) is an unfavorable environment for outgrowth of L. monocytogenes.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Oser Technologies, Blacksville, West Virginia 26521, USA 2: Hawkins Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413 3: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038, USA 4: Hatfield Quality Meats, Hatfield, Pennsylvania 19440, USA 5: Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA 6: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038, USA.

Publication date: March 1, 2011

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