Reduction of Salmonella enterica Contamination on Grape Tomatoes by Washing with Thyme Oil, Thymol, and Carvacrol as Compared with Chlorine Treatment
Source: Journal of Food Protection®, Number 12, December 2010, pp. 2148-2349 , pp. 2270-2275(6)
Abstract:In recent years, multistate outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serovars were traced to tomatoes and resulted in serious economic loss for the tomato industry and decreased consumer confidence in the safety of tomato produce. Purified compounds derived from essential oils such as thymol and carvacrol had wide inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens including Salmonella. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activities of thymol, carvacrol, and thyme oil against Salmonella on grape tomatoes. Surface-inoculated grape tomatoes were washed with 4% ethanol, 200 ppm of chlorine, or one of six washing solutions (thymol [0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml], thyme oil [1 and 2 mg/ml], and carvacrol [0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml]) for 5 or 10 min. There was no significant difference in the reduction of S. enterica serovars when different washing times were used (P > 0.05). Thymol (especially at the concentration of 0.4 mg/ml) was the most effective (P < 0.05) among the three natural antimicrobial agents, which achieved >4.1-log reductions of S. enterica serovars Typhimurium, Kentucky, Senftenberg, and Enteritidis on grape tomatoes after a 5-min washing and >4.3-log reductions after a 10-min washing. A >4.6-log reduction in the S. enterica populations in comparison to control was observed with the use of thymol solutions. The uses of these antimicrobial agents achieved significant log reductions of Salmonella on inoculated grape tomatoes and decreased dramatically the risk of potential transmission of pathogens from tomatoes to washing solutions. None of these antimicrobial agents decreased the total phenolic and ascorbic acid content, nor did any of them change the color and pH values or affect the taste, aroma, or visual quality of grape tomatoes. Therefore, 0.4 mg/ml thymol has great potential to be an alternative to chlorine-based washing solution for fresh produce.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Animal and Food Sciences, 044 Townsend Hall, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA 2: Department of Animal and Food Sciences, 044 Townsend Hall, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA;, Email: email@example.com
Publication date: December 1, 2010
- IAFP members must first sign in on the right to access full text articles of JFP First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.
Print and online subscriptions are available to Members and Institutional subscribers. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Information can be obtained by calling +1 800.369.6337; +1 515.276.3344; fax: +1 515.276.8655, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or Web site: www.foodprotection.org
- Information for Authors
- Submit a Paper
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- Information for Advertisers
- ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites