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Distribution of Deoxynivalenol and Nivalenol in Milling Fractions from Fusarium-Infected Japanese Wheat Cultivars

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The fate of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol during the milling of Japanese wheat cultivars artificially infected with Fusarium was investigated. Grain samples with different mycotoxin concentrations were milled using a laboratory-scale test mill to produce eight fractions: three breaking flours (1B, 2B, and 3B), three reduction flours (1M, 2M, and 3M), wheat bran, and wheat shorts. Patent flour for human consumption was made from the 1B, 2B, 1M, and 2M flours, and low-grade flour was made from 3B and 3M flours. The four resulting samples (patent flour, low-grade flour, bran, and shorts) were analyzed for deoxynivalenol and/or nivalenol with an in-house validated analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection. In samples with different mycotoxin concentrations, the distribution of those toxins differed among the milling fractions. Grains with a lower level of contamination produced bran and shorts samples with a high relative concentration of nivalenol. A high percentage of nivalenol was found in patent flour, followed by bran. Contrary to the less-contaminated sample, the concentration of nivalenol in moderately contaminated grain was high only in the shorts sample. The highest percentage of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol was observed in the patent flour. The results of this study indicate that the distribution of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in milled Japanese wheat could be influenced by the contamination level of the original grain, and the milling process is not always effective for removal of toxins from wheat grains.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan 2: Education and Research Center of Alpine Field Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 462-1 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305, Japan 3: National Agricultural Research Center for Kyushu Okinawa Region, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2421 Suya, Koshi, Kumamoto 861-1192, Japan 4: National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba 305-8642, Japan.

Publication date: October 1, 2010

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