Skip to main content

Attachment of Noroviruses to Stainless Steel and Their Inactivation, Using Household Disinfectants

Buy Article:

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the impact of pH and relative humidity on the attachment of norovirus (NoV) to fomites and (ii) to evaluate the effectiveness of different household disinfectants on NoV attached to fomites. Plaque assay and/or real-time reverse transcription PCR assay were used to determine the amount of murine and human NoV attached to stainless steel disks, i.e., the amount removed by sonication in elution buffer but not by surface rinses with water only. An enzymatic pretreatment was used for both human and murine NoV before the real-time reverse transcription PCR assay to avoid detection of RNA associated with inactivated virus. For both murine and human NoV, maximum attachment was obtained after a contact time of 10 min. Attachment of NoV to stainless steel does not appear to be affected by pH, although murine NoV was less attached (<2 log units) at pH 9 and at low relative humidity (25%) than was human NoV (3 log units). Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was the most effective disinfectant, producing a greater than 3-log reduction after 10 min compared with less than a 1-log reduction after treatment with quaternary ammonium compounds and ethoxylated alcohols. Murine NoV was more sensitive than human NoV to disinfectants by approximately 1 to 2 log units. These results will help improve strategies for decontaminating surfaces harboring NoV and thus reduce the incidence of illness caused by these pathogens in the food sector and domestic environments.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Institute of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada G1V 0A6 2: Health Canada, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0K9

Publication date: February 1, 2010

More about this publication?
  • IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website).

    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Partial Open Access Content
Partial Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more