Skip to main content

Antilisterial Effects of Gravinol-S Grape Seed Extract at Low Levels in Aqueous Media and Its Potential Application as a Produce Wash

Buy Article:

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Grape seed extract (GSE) is a rich source of proanthocyanidins, a class of natural antioxidants reported to have wide-ranging bioactivity as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial agents. The ability of GSE to rapidly inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in vitro and the generally recognized as safe status of GSE make this extract an attractive candidate for control of Listeria in or on foods. Previously, GSE has been used at relatively high concentrations (1%) in complex food matrices and in combination with other antimicrobials. We sought to characterize the antilisterial effects of a commercial GSE preparation (Gravinol-S) alone at much lower concentrations (0.00015 to 0.125%) in aqueous solution and to test its possible use as an antimicrobial wash for fresh produce surfaces. Based on broth microdilution tests, the MICs of GSE against L. monocytogenes Scott A and Listeria innocua ATCC 33090 were as low as 50 and 78 μg ml−1, respectively. GSE was evaluated in 0.85% saline against live cells of L. innocua via flow cytometry, using propidium iodide as a probe for membrane integrity. At sub-MICs and after only 2 min of exposure, treatment with GSE caused rapid permeabilization and clumping of L. innocua, results that we confirmed for L. monocytogenes using fluorescence microscopy and Live/Dead staining. At higher concentrations (0.125%), GSE reduced viable cell counts for L. monocytogenes by approximately 2 log units within 2 min on tomato surfaces. These results suggest the potential for GSE as a natural control of Listeria spp. on low-complexity foods such as tomatoes.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, 2312 Food Science Building, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA 2: Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, 2312 Food Science Building, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA; Biotechnology Regulatory Services, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236, USA

Publication date: February 1, 2010

More about this publication?
  • IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website).

    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more