Carvacrol and Cinnamaldehyde Inactivate Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella enterica in Buffer and on Celery and Oysters

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The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella is of concern to food processors. The objective of this research was to identify antimicrobial activities of cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and on celery and oysters. Twenty-three isolates were screened for resistance to seven antibiotics. Two resistant and two susceptible strains were chosen for the study. S. enterica cultures (105 CFU/ml) were added to different concentrations of cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4% [vol/vol]) in PBS, mixed, and incubated at 37°C. Samples were taken at 0, 1, 5, and 24 h for enumeration. Celery and oysters were inoculated with S. enterica (106–7 CFU/ml), treated with 1% cinnamaldehyde or 1% carvacrol, incubated at 4°C, and then sampled for enumeration on days 0 and 3. Both antimicrobials induced complete inactivation of S. enterica in PBS at 0.3 and 0.4% on exposure, and on 0.2% in 1 h. Exposure to cinnamaldehyde at 0.1% inactivated all pathogens at 1 h, and survivors were observed only for Salmonella Newport with 0.1% carvacrol at 1 h. In celery, 1% carvacrol reduced S. enterica populations to below detection on day 0, while 1% cinnamaldehyde reduced populations by 1 and 2.3 log on day 0 and day 3, respectively. In oysters, both antimicrobials caused about 5-log reductions on day 3. These results show the potential antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde against antibiotic-resistant S. enterica in vitro and in foods.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona, 1117 East Lowell Street, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA 2: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Western Regional Research Center, Produce Safety and Microbiology Research, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, California 94710, USA

Publication date: February 1, 2010

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