Influence of Storage Temperature and Apple Variety on Patulin Production by Penicillium expansum

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:


This study examined the potential for patulin production in six different varieties of apples (Red Delicious, Golden Supreme, Gala, Fuji, Empire, and McIntosh) inoculated with Penicillium expansum spores and stored at two different temperatures (11 and 20.5°C). Samples for patulin analysis were randomly taken from apples stored at different times, ranging from 21 to 93 days. While patulin was produced at both storage temperatures, apples incubated at 20.5°C yielded significantly higher patulin concentrations than did those incubated at 11°C. All apple varieties showed mold spoilage at both temperatures, except Red Delicious and Empire. A total of 44% of the samples analyzed showed patulin concentrations above the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory limit (50 ppb). The highest patulin productions occurred in Golden Supreme (54,221 ppb) and McIntosh (52,131 and 48,457 ppb) varieties. Our results showed that careful culling of apples is essential for high juice quality, since high patulin levels in some apples varieties could result in a level greater than 50 ppb of this mycotoxin in the finished juice or cider, even when only one contaminated apple occurs in 1,000 apples.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900, Brazil 2: Department of Food Science and Technology, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Cornell University, Geneva, New York 14456-0462, USA

Publication date: May 1, 2009

More about this publication?
  • IAFP members must first sign in on the right to access full text articles of JFP

    First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to Members and Institutional subscribers. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Information can be obtained by calling +1 800.369.6337; +1 515.276.3344; fax: +1 515.276.8655, E-mail: or Web site:
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more