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Egg Yolk Antibodies for Detection and Neutralization of Clostridium botulinum Type A Neurotoxin

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Abstract:

The objective of this research project was to determine the usefulness of an egg antibody platform for producing materials for the detection and neutralization of botulinum type A neurotoxin. Yield estimates for detection and neutralizing antibodies produced using methods described were calculated. Antibody specific to botulinum toxoid A (aToxoid) and toxin A (aBoNT/A) was produced by immunizing hens with botulinum toxoid A (toxoid) followed by increasing amounts of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) in Freund incomplete adjuvant. Egg yolks were extracted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for antibody detection and neutralization experiments. A model aToxoid/toxoid immunoassay using only egg yolk antibody was developed and had a detection limit of 1 pg/ml of toxoid. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of BoNT/A-specific antibody, the aBoNT/A contained more BoNT/A-specific antibody than did the aToxoid, and aBoNT/A was as effective as commercial rabbit antibody. The aToxoid provided no protection against BoNT/A in a standard mouse neutralization assay; however, 1 mg of PEG-extracted aBoNT/A neutralized 4,000 lethal doses of BoNT/A injected intraperitoneally. Based on these results, we calculated that in 1 month one hen could produce more than 100 liters of antibody detection reagents or enough antibody to neutralize approximately 11.6 million mouse lethal doses of botulinum toxin. Utilization of an egg antibody platform is potentially rapid (28 to 70 days) and scalable to kilogram quantities using current egg production facilities with as few as 1,000 hens.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Nutritional Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 2: Department of Animal Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 3: Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 4: Department of Bacteriology, Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 5: Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Department of Bacteriology, Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 6: Department of Nutritional Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Department of Animal Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; Department of Bacteriology, Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA

Publication date: May 1, 2009

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