Inactivation of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Lettuce and Poultry Skin by Combinations of Levulinic Acid and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:


Four organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, caprylic acid, and levulinic acid) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were evaluated individually or in combination for their ability to inactivate Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Results from pure culture assays in water with the treatment chemical revealed that 0.5% organic acid and 0.05 to 1% SDS, when used individually, reduced pathogen cell numbers by ≤2 log CFU/ml within 20 min at 21°C. The combination of any of these organic acids at 0.5% with 0.05% SDS resulted in >7 log CFU/ml inactivation of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 within 10 s at 21°C. A combination of levulinic acid and SDS was evaluated at different concentrations for pathogen reduction on lettuce at 21°C, on poultry (wings and skin) at 8°C, and in water containing chicken feces or feathers at 21°C. Results revealed that treatment of lettuce with a combination of 3% levulinic acid plus 1% SDS for <20 s reduced both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations by >6.7 log CFU/g on lettuce. Salmonella and aerobic bacterial populations on chicken wings were reduced by >5 log CFU/g by treatment with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS for 1 min. Treating water heavily contaminated with chicken feces with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS reduced Salmonella populations by >7 log CFU/ml within 20 s. The use of levulinic acid plus SDS as a wash solution may have practical application for killing foodborne enteric pathogens on fresh produce and uncooked poultry.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223, USA

Publication date: May 1, 2009

More about this publication?
  • IAFP members must first sign in on the right to access full text articles of JFP

    First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to Members and Institutional subscribers. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Information can be obtained by calling +1 800.369.6337; +1 515.276.3344; fax: +1 515.276.8655, E-mail: or Web site:
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more