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Effects of Nitrate or Nitro Supplementation, with or without Added Chlorate, on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli in Swine Feces

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The effects of coincubating the active agent of an experimental chlorate product with nitrate or select nitro compounds, possible inducers and competing substrates for the targeted respiratory nitrate reductase, on concentrations of experimentally inoculated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and indigenous Escherichia coli were determined. Studies were completed in swine fecal suspensions as a prelude to the administration of these inhibitors to pigs. Results confirmed the bactericidal effect of chlorate (5 to 10 mM) against these fecal enterobacteria, reducing (P < 0.05) concentrations by >2 log CFU ml−1 after 3 to 6 h of incubation. An effect (P < 0.05) of pH was observed, with considerable regrowth of Salmonella and E. coli occurring after 24 h of incubation in suspensions buffered to pH 7.1 but not in suspensions buffered to pH 6.5 or 5.6. A 24h coincubation of fecal suspensions with 5 to 10 mM chlorate and as little as 2.5 mM nitrate or 10 to 20 mM 2-nitro-1-propanol, 2-nitroethanol, and, sometimes, nitroethane decreased (P < 0.05) Salmonella but not necessarily E. coli concentrations. 2-Nitro-1-propanol and 2-nitroethanol exhibited inhibitory activity against Salmonella and E. coli by an undetermined mechanism, even in the absence of added chlorate.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food & Feed Safety Research Unit, 2881 F&B Road, College Station, Texas, USA 2: Department of Animal and Range Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA

Publication date: February 1, 2007

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