Skip to main content

Evaluation of Fertilization-to-Planting and Fertilization-to-Harvest Intervals for Safe Use of Noncomposted Bovine Manure in Wisconsin Vegetable Production

Buy Article:

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Fresh bovine manure was mechanically incorporated into loamy sand and silty clay loam Wisconsin soils in April 2004. At varying fertilization-to-planting intervals, radish, lettuce, and carrot seeds were planted; crops were harvested 90, 100, 110 or 111, and 120 days after manure application. As an indicator of potential contamination with fecal pathogens, levels of Escherichia coli in the manure-fertilized soil and presence of E. coli on harvested vegetables were monitored. From initial levels of 4.0 to 4.2 log CFU/g, E. coli levels in both manure-fertilized soils decreased by 2.4 to 2.5 log CFU/g during the first 7 weeks. However, E. coli was consistently detected from enriched soil samples through week 17, perhaps as a result of contamination by birds and other wildlife. In the higher clay silty clay loam soil, the fertilization-to-planting interval affected the prevalence of E. coli on lettuce but not on radishes and carrots. Root crop contamination was consistent across different fertilization-to-harvest intervals in silty clay loam, including the National Organic Program minimum fertilization-to-harvest interval of 120 days. However, lettuce contamination in silty clay loam was significantly (P < 0.10) affected by fertilization-to-harvest interval. Increasing the fertilization-to-planting interval in the lower clay loamy sand soil decreased the prevalence of E. coli on root crops. The fertilization-to-harvest interval had no clear effect on vegetable contamination in loamy sand. Overall, these results do not provide grounds for reducing the National Organic Program minimum fertilization-to-harvest interval from the current 120-day standard.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1565, USA 2: Agricultural Research Station, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Hancock, Wisconsin 54943, USA 3: West Madison Agricultural Research Station, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Verona, Wisconsin 53593, USA 4: Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1565, USA

Publication date: June 1, 2005

More about this publication?
  • IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website).

    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more