Skip to main content

Synergistic Inhibitory Effect of Citral with Selected Phenolics against Zygosaccharomyces bailii

Buy Article:

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Antifungal susceptibilities of Zygosaccharomyces bailii to individual and binary mixtures of citral with selected phenolics were evaluated to identify synergistic combinations. Individual effects of citral, vanillin, thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol concentrations and combined effects of citral with the other phenolic compounds on the growth of Z. bailii were evaluated in potato dextrose agar, adjusted with sucrose to a water activity of 0.99 or 0.95, and hydrochloric acid to pH 4.5 or 3.5. MICs for individual and binary antimicrobial mixtures were identified and then transformed to fractional inhibitory concentrations. Inhibitory concentrations of citral and vanillin were higher than 650 ppm, whereas for thymol, eugenol, and carvacrol, concentrations were lower than 250 ppm for several of the studied water activity–pH conditions. Combining citral with the other phenolic compounds, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and FICIndex varied from 0.216 to 0.582. FICIndex demonstrated synergistic effects on Z. bailii inhibition when citral was used in combination with vanillin, thymol, carvacrol, or eugenol. Therefore, the relative amount of antimicrobials could be greatly reduced.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2005

More about this publication?
  • IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website).

    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more
Real Time Web Analytics