Control of Listeria monocytogenes on Frankfurters with Antimicrobials in the Formulation and by Dipping in Organic Acid Solutions
Abstract:The antilisterial activity of sodium lactate (SL) and sodium diacetate (SD) was evaluated in a frankfurter formulation and in combination with a dipping treatment into solutions of lactic acid or acetic acid after processing and inoculation. Pork frankfurters were formulated with 1.8% SL or 0.25% SD or combinations of 1.8% SL with 0.25 or 0.125% SD. After processing, frankfurters were inoculated (2 to 3 log CFU/cm2) with a 10-strain composite of Listeria monocytogenes and left undipped or were dipped (2 min) in 2.5% solutions of lactic acid or acetic acid (23 ± 2°C) before vacuum packaging and storage at 10°C for 40 days. Total microbial populations and L. monocytogenes, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds were enumerated during storage. Sensory evaluations also were carried out on frankfurters treated and/or formulated with effective antimicrobials. The combination of 1.8% SL with 0.25% SD provided complete inhibition of L. monocytogenes growth throughout storage. Dipping in lactic acid or acetic acid reduced initial populations by 0.7 to 2.1 log CFU/cm2, but during storage (12 to 20 days), populations on dipped samples without antimicrobials in the formulation reached 5.5 to 7.9 log CFU/cm2. For samples containing single antimicrobials and dipped in lactic acid or acetic acid, L. monocytogenes growth was completely inhibited or reduced over 12 and 28 days, respectively, whereas final populations were lower (P < 0.05) than those in undipped samples of the same formulations. Bactericidal effects during storage (reductions of 0.6 to 1.0 log CFU/cm2 over 28 to 40 days) were observed in frankfurters containing combinations of SL and SD that were dipped in organic acid solutions. Inclusion of antimicrobials in the formulation and/or dipping the product into organic acid solutions did not affect (P > 0.05) the flavor and overall acceptability of products compared with controls. The results of this study may be valuable to meat processors as they seek approaches for meeting new regulatory requirements in the United States.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Center for Red Meat Safety, Department of Animal Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA 2: Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA
Publication date: November 1, 2004
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