Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in Apple Cider and Orange Juice as Affected by Ozone and Treatment Temperature
Abstract:Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in apple cider and orange juice treated with ozone was evaluated. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 or a five-serovar mixture of Salmonella was inoculated (7 log CFU/ml) into apple cider and orange juice. Ozone (0.9 g/h) was pumped into juices maintained at 4°C, ambient temperature (approximately 20°C), and 50°C for up to 240 min, depending on organism, juice, and treatment temperature. Samples were withdrawn, diluted in 0.1% peptone water, and surface plated onto recovery media. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 was compared on tryptic soy agar (TSA), sorbitol MacConkey agar, hemorrhagic coli agar, and modified eosin methylene blue agar; recovery of Salmonella was compared on TSA, bismuth sulfite agar, and xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar. After treatment at 50°C, E. coli O157:H7 populations were undetectable (limit of 1.0 log CFU/ml; a minimum 6.0-log CFU/ml reduction) after 45 min in apple cider and 75 min in orange juice. At 50°C, Salmonella was reduced by 4.8 log CFU/ml (apple cider) and was undetectable in orange juice after 15 min. E. coli O157:H7 at 4°C was reduced by 4.8 log CFU/ml in apple cider and by 5.4 log CFU/ml in orange juice. Salmonella was reduced by 4.5 log CFU/ml (apple cider) and 4.2 log CFU/ml (orange juice) at 4°C. Treatment at ambient temperature resulted in population reductions of less than 5.0 log CFU/ml. Recovery of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on selective media was substantially lower than recovery on TSA, indicating development of sublethal injury. Ozone treatment of apple cider and orange juice at 4°C or in combination with mild heating (50°C) may provide an alternative to thermal pasteurization for reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in apple cider and orange juice.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Tennessee, 2605 River Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-4591 2: Department of Food Science and Technology (0418), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
Publication date: November 1, 2004
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