Survival and Recovery of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on Lettuce and Parsley as Affected by Method of Inoculation, Time between Inoculation and Analysis, and Treatment with Chlorinated Water
Abstract:The effects of method for applying inoculum and of drying time after inoculation on survival and recovery of foodborne pathogens on iceberg lettuce and parsley were studied. Five-strain mixtures of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, or Listeria monocytogenes were applied to lettuce and parsley by dip, spot, or spray inoculation methods. Inocula were dried for 2 h at 22°C or for 2 h at 22°C and then 22 h at 4°C before being treated with water (control) or chlorine (200 μg/ml). Significantly higher populations (CFU per lettuce or parsley sample) of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella (α = 0.05) were recovered from dip-inoculated produce than from spot- or spray-inoculated produce. This difference was attributed to larger numbers of cells adhering to lettuce and parsley subjected to dip inoculation. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella recovered from lettuce inoculated by spot and spray methods were not significantly different, but populations recovered from spot-inoculated parsley were significantly higher than those recovered from spray-inoculated parsley, even though the number of cells applied was the same. Significantly different numbers of L. monocytogenes were recovered from inoculated lettuce (dip > spray > spot); populations recovered from dip-inoculated parsley were significantly higher than those recovered from spot- or spray-inoculated parsley, which were not significantly different from each other. Populations of pathogens recovered from lettuce and parsley after drying inoculum for 2 h at 22°C were significantly higher than or equal to populations recovered after drying for 2 h at 22°C and then for 22 h at 4°C. Significant differences (water > chlorine) were observed in populations of all pathogens recovered from treated lettuce and parsley, regardless of inoculation method and drying time. It is recommended that spot inoculation with a drying time of 2 h at 22°C followed by 22 h at 4°C be used to determine the efficacy of chlorine and other sanitizers in killing foodborne pathogens on lettuce and parsley.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797 2: Department of Food Science and Technology, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, California 95616-8598, USA
Publication date: June 1, 2004
- IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website). The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.
Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at www.foodprotection.org.
- Information for Authors
- Submit a Paper
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- Information for Advertisers
- ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites