Skip to main content

Factors Contributing to the Occurrence of Antimicrobial Drug Residues in Kenyan Milk

Buy Article:

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


The study investigated factors contributing to the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in milk within four major milk production districts in Kenya. The frequency of contamination was studied among small- and large-scale dairy producers to determine if there were differences between the two types of producers. Field samples (n = 1,600) were analyzed with the improved Dutch tube diffusion test, a microbial inhibitor test (Bacillus stearothermophilus). In total, 144 and 64 samples from small- and large-scale producers, respectively, were found to contain β-lactam antibiotics at levels exceeding the established Codex maximum residue level for penicillin G (4 μg/kg). The difference in results between the two categories of producers was found to be significant (P < 0.001). To explain the higher frequency of antibiotic contamination of milk from small-scale producers, a questionnaire was constructed and used with 220 randomly selected smallholders in the selected districts. The results suggested (i) lack of understanding of risks related to antibiotic contamination of food, (ii) poor or no treatment records, and (iii) lack of a monitoring system as major risks for contamination. It was concluded that intensification of the education among small-scale dairy producers would greatly reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in milk.


Document Type: Short Communication

Affiliations: 1: Department of Food Science, Egerton University Njoro, P.O. Box 536, Njoro, Kenya 2: Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7051, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Publication date: February 1, 2004

More about this publication?
  • IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website).

    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Partial Open Access Content
Partial Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more