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Comparative Analysis of Acid Resistance between Susceptible and Multi-Antimicrobial-Resistant Salmonella Strains Cultured under Stationary-Phase Acid Tolerance-Inducing and Noninducing Conditions

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Abstract:

This study compared acid resistance levels among five antimicrobial-susceptible strains of Salmonella and five strains that were simultaneously resistant to a minimum of six antimicrobial agents. The induction of a stationary-phase acid tolerance response (ATR) was attempted by both transient low-pH acid shock and acid adaptation. For acid shock induction, strains were grown for 18 h in minimal E medium containing 0.4% glucose (EG medium) and exposed to sublethal acid stress (pH 4.3) for 2 h, and subsequently, both shocked and nonshocked cultures were acid challenged (pH 3.0) for 4 h. Acid adaptation was achieved by growing strains for 18 h in tryptic soy broth containing 1.0% glucose (TSB+G), while nonadapted cultures were grown for 18 h in glucose-free tryptic soy broth (TSB-G). Acid-adapted and nonadapted inocula were acid challenged (pH 2.3) for 4 h. Initial (0 h) mean populations of nonchallenged Salmonella were 8.5 to 8.7, 8.4 to 8.8, and 8.2 to 8.3 log CFU/ml for strains grown in EG medium, TSB-G, and TSB+G, respectively. After 4 h of acid challenge, mean populations were 3.0 to 4.8 and 2.5 to 3.7 log CFU/ml for previously acid-shocked susceptible and resistant strains, respectively, while corresponding counts for nonshocked strains were 4.3 to 5.5 log CFU/ml and 3.9 to 4.9 log CFU/ml. Following 4 h of acid exposure, acid-adapted cultures of susceptible and resistant strains had mean populations of 6.1 to 6.4 log CFU/ml and 6.4 to 6.6 log CFU/ml, respectively, while corresponding counts for nonadapted cultures were 1.9 to 2.1 log CFU/ml and 1.8 to 2.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. A low-pH-inducible ATR was not achieved through transient acid shock, while an ATR was evident following acid adaptation, as adapted populations were 4.2 to 4.8 log units larger than nonadapted populations following acid exposure. Although some strain-dependent variations in acid resistance were observed, results from this study suggest no association between susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and the ability of the Salmonella strains evaluated to survive low-pH stress.

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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Center for Red Meat Safety, Department of Animal Sciences 2: Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado 80523-1571, USA

Publication date: May 1, 2003

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    First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

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