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Novel Quantitative Assays for Estimating the Antimicrobial Activity of Fresh Garlic Juice

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Abstract:

Novel agar diffusion and broth dilution assays were developed for quantitatively estimating the antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic juice. Bacteria found to be inhibited by garlic juice in agar diffusion assay included two gram-positive and five gram-negative species. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was not inhibited. Escherichia coli B-103 (HB101, with pJH101, ampicillin resistant, 100 μg ml-1) was inhibited and chosen as the standard culture for quantitative assays. The agar diffusion assay was based on the slope ratio method, where the slope of dose response for garlic juice was divided by the slope of dose response for methylmethane thiosulfonate (MMTSO2). Juice from fresh garlic varied in activity between 1.76 and 2.31 μg of MMTSO2 per mg of garlic juice. The activity of juice decreased during 11 months of storage of garlic cloves at 5°C from 2.31 to less than 0.1 μg of MMTSO2 per mg of juice. The broth dilution assay also used the E. coli B-103 culture, which permitted selective enumeration of this bacterium when 100 μg ml-1 of ampicillin was incorporated into the enumerating agar. Selective enumeration was essential since the garlic juice was not sterile and, thus, contained natural flora. Growth of E. coli was unaffected by 0.1%, delayed by 0.25%, and completely inhibited at 0.5 and 2% garlic juice in broth during 24 h of incubation at 37°C. The minimum inhibition concentration of garlic juice by broth dilution assay was, thus, estimated to be 0.5%, which is equivalent to 3.46 μg of MMTSO2 per mg of garlic juice by the agar diffusion assay.

Keywords:

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, and North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Department of Food Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7624, USA 2: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, and North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Department of Food Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7624, USA 3: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, and North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Department of Food Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7624, USA 4: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, and North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Department of Food Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7624, USA

Publication date: 2001-02-01

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