Norwalk-like Virus Sequences Detected by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction in Mineral Waters Imported into or Bottled in Switzerland
Abstract:Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) is a genus belonging to the Caliciviridae. NLVs are transmitted by the fecal-oral and the aerosol route and are the most common cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. NLVs are responsible for an estimated 67% of all illnesses caused by known foodborne pathogens and for 96% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Many outbreaks could be associated with the consumption of primarily or secondarily contaminated foods. To our knowledge, no epidemic arising from contaminated mineral water has been reported. We investigated the presence of NLV sequences in 63 mineral waters of 29 different brands that were imported into or bottled in Switzerland. NLV sequences were detected in 21 mineral waters by reverse transcription-seminested polymerase chain reaction. Specimens of two NLV genogroups (gg), gg I and gg II, were randomly present in the contaminated samples. The presence of NLV sequences could not be correlated either with bottle characteristics or with chemical properties like mineralization, pH, or the presence of carbonic acid. Nucleotide sequence analysis of 12 NLV-positive samples revealed several point mutations. All isolated NLV gg I strains have a similarity of 70 to 87% with the common Desert Shield virus (UO4469), and all isolated NLV gg II strains have a similarity of 89 to 93% with the Camberwell virus (U46500). Possible reasons for the presence of NLV sequences in mineral waters are discussed.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Cantonal Food Laboratory of Solothurn, CH-4500 Solothurn, Switzerland
Publication date: November 1, 2000
More about this publication?
- IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website). The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.
Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at www.foodprotection.org.
- Information for Authors
- Submit a Paper
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- Information for Advertisers
- Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites