Skip to main content

Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Toxigenesis in Cooked Turkey Stored under Modified Atmospheres

Buy Article:

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


The ability of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B spores to grow and produce toxin in cooked, uncured turkey packaged under modified atmospheres was investigated at refrigeration and mild to moderate abuse temperatures. Cook-in-bag turkey breast was carved into small chunks, surface-inoculated with a mixture of nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B spores, packaged in O2-impermeable bags under two modified atmospheres (100% N2 and 30% CO2:70% N2), and stored at 4, 10, and 15°C. Samples were analyzed for botulinal toxin and indigenous microorganisms, as well as subjected to sensory evaluation, on days 0, 7, 14, 28, 42, and 60. Given sufficient incubation time, nonproteolytic C. botulinum type B grew and produced toxin in all temperature and modified atmosphere treatment combinations. At moderate temperature abuse (15°C), toxin was detected by day 7, independent of packaging atmosphere. At mild temperature abuse (10°C), toxin was detected by day 14, also independent of packaging atmosphere. At refrigeration temperature (4°C), toxin was detected by day 14 in product packaged under 100% N2 and by day 28 in product packaged under 30% CO2:70% N2. Reduced storage temperature significantly delayed toxin production and extended the period of sensory acceptability of cooked turkey, but even strict refrigeration did not prevent growth and toxigenesis by nonproteolytic C. botulinum. At all three storage temperatures, toxin detection preceded or coincided with development of sensory characteristics of spoilage, demonstrating the potential for consumption of toxic product when spoilage-signaling sensory cues are absent.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0418, USA

Publication date: November 1, 2000

More about this publication?
  • IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website).

    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more