Development and Characterization of a Carbon-Based Composite Material for Reducing Patulin Levels in Apple Juice
Abstract:Patulin, a heterocyclic lactone produced by various species of Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi, is often detected in apple juices and ciders. Previous research has shown the effectiveness of granular activated carbon for reducing patulin levels in aqueous solutions, apple juices, and ciders. In this study, ultrafine activated carbon was bonded onto granular quartz to produce a composite carbon adsorbent (CCA) with a high carbonaceous surface area, good bed porosity, and increased bulk density. CCA in fixed-bed adsorption columns was evaluated for efficacy in reducing patulin levels from aqueous solutions and apple juice. Columns containing 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 g of CCA were continuously loaded with a patulin solution (10 μg/ml) and eluted at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Results indicated that 50% breakthrough capacities for patulin on 1.0-, 0.5-, and 0.25-g CCA columns were 137.5, 38.5, and 19.9 μg, respectively. The effectiveness of CCA to adsorb patulin and prevent toxic effects was confirmed in vitro using adult hydra in culture. Hydra were sensitive to the effects of patulin, with a minimal affective concentration equal to 0.7 μg/ml; CCA adsorption prevented patulin toxicity until 76% breakthrough capacity was achieved. Fixed-bed adsorption with 1.0 g of CCA was also effective in reducing patulin concentrations (20 μg/liter) in a naturally contaminated apple juice, and breakthrough capacities were shown to increase with temperature. Additionally, CCA offered a higher initial breakthrough capacity than pelleted activated carbon when compared in parallel experiments. This study suggests that CCA used in fixed-bed adsorption systems effectively reduced patulin levels in both aqueous solutions and naturally contaminated apple juice; however, the appearance and taste of apple juice may be affected by the treatment process.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Veterinary Anatomy & Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4458, USA
Publication date: January 1, 2000
More about this publication?
- IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website). The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.
Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at www.foodprotection.org.
- Information for Authors
- Submit a Paper
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- Information for Advertisers
- ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites