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Efficacy of Spray Application of Chlorinated Water in Killing Pathogenic Bacteria on Raw Apples, Tomatoes, and Lettuce

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Washing whole and cut produce by dipping or submerging in chlorinated water has a sanitizing effect, although reduction in microbial populations is minimal and is usually less than 100-fold. A study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a spray application of chlorine in killing Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, yeasts and molds, and total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms on whole apples, tomatoes, and lettuce leaves. Inoculated produce was treated (sprayed and then soaked) with water (control) or solutions containing 200 or 2,000 ppm of chlorine for 0, 1, 3, 5, or 10 min, rinsed with sterile water, and analyzed for populations (CFU/cm2) of target microorganisms. Compared to the control treatment, further reductions in numbers of pathogens of 0.35 to 2.30 log CFU/cm2 were achieved by treatment with chlorine. Chlorine was generally more effective at 2,000 ppm than at 200 ppm. Inactivation of microorganisms occurred essentially within 1 min after application of chlorine. These reductions are significant relative to populations of pathogenic microorganisms that may be present on produce. Spray application of chlorine to raw produce at food service or household levels may be a suitable, and more convenient, alternative to treatment by dipping or submersion.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797, USA

Publication date: October 1, 1998

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    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

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