Colony Interaction and Secondary Metabolite Production of Cheese-Related Fungi in Dual Culture
Abstract:Interactions between fungi used as starter cultures (Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium nalgiovense, and Geotrichum candidum) and fungal contaminants associated with cheese were investigated on agar medium at two temperatures, 18 and 25°C. Mutual inhibition on contact was the most common interaction observed. The only other interaction observed was inhibition of the contaminant, while the starter continued to grow, especially in dual cultures involving G. candidum as the starter culture. Dual cultures involving G. candidum showed inhibition of production of the mycotoxins mycophenolic acid, roquefortin C, chaetoglobosin A, and cyclopiazonic acid produced by the contaminants. An unknown metabolite was detected in considerably larger quantity in dual cultures involving G. candidum compared to detection in single cultures. There was no correlation between detection of this metabolite and the observed interactions. The results show that G. candidum plays a major role in interactions between fungi on cheese.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Biotechnology, Building 221, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark