Reduction of Microorganisms on Citrus Fruit Surfaces during Packinghouse Processing

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:


Citrus fruit surface microbial populations were evaluated following various packingline processes of seven Florida commercial packinghouses. At each packinghouse, six fruits (oranges or tangerines) were collected at each of four sampling points. The sampling was conducted in duplicate; thus, 336 fruit were evaluated during this survey. Average aerobic plate counts and yeast and mold counts on fruit surfaces before washing were about 4.0 log CFU/cm2 and 3.3 log CFU/cm2, respectively, and were reduced to 2.1 log CFU/cm2 and 1.3 log CFU/cm2, respectively, by packinghouse processing. Waxing alone reduced the average fruit surface aerobic plate counts and coliform counts from 3.7 log CFU/cm2 and 35.2 most probable number (MPN)/cm2, respectively, to 2.6 log CFU/cm2 and l.4 MPN/cm2. No Escherichia coli was recovered from fruit at the end of packinghouse processing, and no salmonellae were found on fruit during the entire processing. In an inoculation study to test the effect of packinghouse processes, test organism E. coli was applied to fruit to achieve a high level (4.8 log CFU/cm2) of contamination. The average E. coli count was reduced about 2.4 log cycles by washing and rinsing with potable water (40 psi, 25°C) for about 30 s. The combination of washing and waxing significantly reduced the inoculated level of E. coli from 4.8 to 1.4 log CFU/cm2.

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Florida Department of Citrus, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, Florida 33850, USA

Publication date: July 1, 1998

More about this publication?
  • IAFP members must first sign in on the right to access full text articles of JFP

    First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to Members and Institutional subscribers. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Information can be obtained by calling +1 800.369.6337; +1 515.276.3344; fax: +1 515.276.8655, E-mail: or Web site:
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more