Mycotoxins of Aspergillus clavatus: Toxicity of Cytochalasin E, Patulin, and Extracts of Contaminated Barley Malt

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Abstract:

Brine shrimp and conductimetric Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioassays were used to investigate the toxicity of green barley malt prepared at 16 and 25°C from grain inoculated with a strain of Aspergillus clavatus known to produce the mycotoxins cytochalasin E and patulin during malting. Pure cytochalasin E was considerably more toxic to brine shrimp larvae than patulin (LC50 < 0.5 versus >30 μg ml−1). In contrast, patulin significantly inhibited growth-related change in conductance of S. cerevisiae cultures at a concentration of 10 μg ml−1, but cytochalasin E had no effect at 80 μg ml−1. Extracts of both 16 and 25°C malts contaminated with A. clavatus were toxic to brine shrimp larvae, but had only limited inhibitory effects on the growth of S. cerevisiae. Since concentrations of cytochalasin E in contaminated malts produced at 16°C are below or close to the limits of detection, the presence of other fungal metabolites toxic to brine shrimps in such malts is indicated.

Keywords: ASPERGILLUS CLAVATUS; CYTOCHALASIN E; MALTING; PATULIN; TOXICITY

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, University of Leon, 24071 Leon, Spain 2: International Centre for Brewing and Distilling, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, U.K.

Publication date: November 1, 1997

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