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Tyramine Formation by Pediococcus spp. during Beer Fermentation

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The role of Pediococcus spp. in the production of tyramine was studied. Strains of these microorganisms were isolated from industrial beer fermentations where high tyramine formation occurred. It has been verified that Pediococcus spp. are able to form tyramine during beer fermentation, and the quantity of tyramine produced depends on the degree of contamination. Thus, CFU of Pediococcus spp. ranging from 4 × 103 to 1 × 104 CFU/ml led to low tyramine formation (<5 mg/liter). Tyramine production between 5 and 15 mg/liter was related to Pediococcus spp. counts from 1 × 104 to 5 × 104 CFU/ml, while counts of these microorganisms above 5 × 104 CFU/ml led to tyramine levels ranging from 15 to 20 mg/liter. Prolonged storage in culture media of the isolated strains of Pediococcus spp. as well as isolation of these microorganisms from beer and transfer to media caused them to lose their ability to produce tyramine. Determination of tyramine levels in beer was found to be a reliable indicator of the degree of contamination by Pediococcus spp. during beer fermentation.


Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Unitat de Nutrició i Bromatologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Avg. Joan XXIII, s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain 2: Laboratori de Microbiologia, S.A. DAMM, Polígono Industrial Manso Mateu, s/n 08082 El Prat de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain

Publication date: 1997-07-01

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