Skip to main content

Quenching and Enhancement Effects of ATP Extractants, Cleansers, and Sanitizers on the Detection of the ATP Bioluminescence Signal

Buy Article:

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Techniques for measuring ATP bioluminescence are being used widely as rapid methods for the assessment of the cleanliness of food-processing plants. Sanitizer or cleanser residues could present a potential problem in the use of these ATP bioluminescence techniques due to the degradation of the firefly luciferin-luciferase substrate-enzyme system by these cleaning chemicals. The objectives of this study were the evaluation of the quenching and enhancement effects on the detection of the ATP bioluminescence signal using various ATP extractants, commercial cleansers, and sanitizers, and the determination of the antimicrobial properties of different concentrations of cleansers and sanitizers on Escherichta coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas fragi. Extractants evaluated were benzalkonium chloride, Triton X-100, benzethonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, and trichloroacetic acid. Cleansers evaluated were an alkaline foam and an acid foam. Also evaluated were a quaternary ammonium sanitizer, a D-limolene sanitizer, commercial sodium hypochlorite, and household bleach (sodium hypochlorite). The extractant cetylpyridinium chloride (0.0125%) did not have a statistically significant effect on the detection of the ATP bioluminescence signal at a 95% confidence level. A transition from enhancement to quenching as a concentration-dependent phenomenon was observed for the alkaline foam, acid foam, commercial sodium hypochlorite, D-limolene, and household bleach. An enhancement effect that did not appear to be concentration-dependent was observed for the quaternary ammonium sanitizer. Antimicrobial disc assays demonstrated that in some cases the cleanser or sanitizer concentration was not effective against the bacteria, but enhanced or quenched the detection of the bioluminescence signal, leading to false-positive or false-negative results respectively.


Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, 1334 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA

Publication date: July 1, 1997

More about this publication?
  • IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website).

    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more