Occurrence and Stability of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Milk Products: A Worldwide Review

Authors: Galvano, Fabio1; Galofaro, Vittorio2; Galvano, Giacomo2

Source: Journal of Food Protection®, Number 10, October 1996, pp. 1023-1137 , pp. 1079-1090(12)

Publisher: International Association for Food Protection

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Abstract:

This paper critically reviews data from the literature since 1980 on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in human and animal milk, infant formula, dried milk, cheese, and yogurt. Furthermore the influence of storage and processing of milk and milk products on the occurrence and stability of AFM1 is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) efforts in attempting to harmonize already existing regulatory limits for AF in foods and feed should be made; (ii) further investigations should verify the influence of milk storage and processing on AFM1 occurrence to avoid uncertainty in actual practice; (iii) the occurrence of AFM1 in animal milks and milk products is widespread, although, considering the current scientific fund, contamination levels do not seem to be a serious health hazard; however, further studies should provide accurate scientific information concerning the human health hazard related to long-term exposure to subchronic AF levels; (iv) monitoring programs should be more extensive and frequent; and (v) in tropical and subtropical countries, especially in African countries, a particular attention should be used in monitoring milk and milk products other than those from cows, as well as feed. Furthermore, extensive and periodic surveys on the occurrence of AF and their metabolite in human breast milk should be performed, since a serious health hazard to mother, fetus, or infants could occur.

Keywords: AFLATOXINS; AFM; CHEESE; MILK; MILK PRODUCTS

Document Type: Abstract

Affiliations: 1: Istituto di Zootecnica, Facoltă di Agraria, Universită di Reggio Calabria, Piazza S, Francesco 7, 89061 Reggio Calabria, Italy 2: Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie delle Produzioni Animali, Facoltà di Agraria, Università di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania, Italy

Publication date: October 1, 1996

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    First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

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