Skip to main content

Incidence of Clostridium botulinum in Vegetables Packaged under Vacuum or Modified Atmosphere

Buy Article:

$37.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Because modified atmosphere-packaged (MAP) vegetables may provide an anaerobic environment conducive to Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production, the incidence of C. botulinum spores in commercially available, precut MAP vegetables was determined. One-pound (454-g) packages of MAP vegetables were aseptically opened, added to freshly steamed and cooled sterile trypticase-peptone-glucose-yeast extract broth and incubated at 35°C for 7 days. Positive and negative controls were included with each sampling. After incubation the broth cultures were tested for toxicity by the standard mouse bioassay. Of the 1,118 MAP vegetable packages examined, one package each of shredded cabbage, chopped green pepper, and Italian salad mix contained C. botulinum type A spores. One additional salad mix (main ingredient, escarole) contained both C. botulinum type A and type B spores. Results indicated a low overall incidence rate (0.36%) of C. botulinum spores in commercially available precut MAP vegetables.


Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Division of Microbiological Studies (HSF-516), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 200 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20204, USA 2: Division of HACCP Programs, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 200 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20204, USA

Publication date: January 1, 1996

More about this publication?
  • IAFP Members with personal subscriptions to JFP Online: To access full-text JFP or JMFT articles, you must sign-in in the upper-right corner using your Ingenta sign-in details (your IAFP Member Login does not apply to this website).

    The Journal of Food Protection (JFP) is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

    Print and online subscriptions are available to IAFP Members and institutional subscribers. IAFP Members with a subscription to JFP Online will have access to all available JFP and JMFT content. Online visitors who are not IAFP Members or journal subscribers will be charged on a pay-per-view basis. Membership and subscription information is available at
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more