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Sensory and Microbial Quality of Milk Processed for Extended Shelf Life by Direct Steam Injection

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Heat treatments of milk between 100 and 145°C produce a new type of product with a shelf life of 15 to 30 days at 7°C, which is termed extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Little information is available on the safety and sensory qualities of this product. Extended shelf life milk is being processed commercially to expand the distribution area of fluid milk products. After arrival at market, this product still has the shelf life of a pasteurized product. In this study milk was processed by direct steam injection at temperatures between 100 and 140°C for 4 or 12 s. Holding time did not significantly affect the sensory quality of the milk. A trained taste panel found cooked flavor and other off flavors varied significantly with increasing processing temperature and storage time. There were no significant differences noted in cooked or off flavors between 132 and 140°C. Psychrotrophic Bacillus species were isolated from milk processed at and below 132°C, while no organisms were isolated from milk processed at temperatures at or above 134°C. Consumer preference panels indicated consumers preferred milk processed at 134°C for 4 s to ultra-high-temperature (UHT) processed milk, although there was a slight preference for high-temperature short-time processed (HTST) milk compared to milk processed at 134°C for 4 s. Higher temperatures had a less destructive effect on lipase activity, while storage time did not significantly affect lipase activity.


Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Western Center for Dairy Protein Research and Technology, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-8700 USA

Publication date: September 1, 1995

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    First published in 1937, the Journal of Food Protection®, is a refereed monthly publication. Each issue contains scientific research and authoritative review articles reporting on a variety of topics in food science pertaining to food safety and quality. The Journal is internationally recognized as the leading publication in the field of food microbiology with a readership exceeding 11,000 scientists from 70 countries. The Journal of Food Protection® is indexed in Index Medicus, Current Contents, BIOSIS, PubMed, Medline, and many others.

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