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Finland is a republic in northern Europe with approximately 5.2 million inhabitants and a land area of 340,000 km2. Life expectancy at birth is about 79 years and Finland faces the challenges of an ageing population. The literacy rate is 100%, the level of education is high and per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. Finland has a relatively homogeneous population with Swedish speaking, Russian and Sami minorities. The Lutheran Church of Finland counts 82.5% of Finns among its members.

In the first half of the 20th century, Finland was a farm and forest economy. In paper mill communities, companies ran practically all issues related to workers' lives. Since World War II, Finland has made a transformation to a diversified modern industrial economy and built a Nordic welfare state. In this model, public institutions provided a societal safety net for Finns and levelled inequalities. Corporate responsibility for citizens was transferred to the state and municipalities (Juholin 2004; Mäkinen and Kourula 2008). At the same time, the environmental movement was born, pressuring companies to pay attention to ecological issues.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9774/GLEAF.978-1-907643-09-5_21

Publication date: June 14, 2010

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  • The World Guide to CSR: A Country-by-Country Analysis of Corporate Sustainability and Responsibility
    The World Guide to CSR is the first book to provide comparable national profiles that describe the evolution and practice of Corporate Sustainability and Responsibility (CSR) for 58 countries and 5 global regions. Each regional and national profile includes key information about the relevant CSR history, country-specific issues, trends, research and leading organisations. The purpose of the book is to give CSR professionals (including managers, consultants, academics and NGOs focusing on the social, environmental and ethical responsibilities of business) a quick reference guide to CSR in different regional and national contexts. This unique resource will be an essential acquisition for all organisations who need to benchmark their CSR strategies throughout different regions and cultures and want the best possible intelligence on the key issues and concerns relating to corporate social responsibility in all of the markets in which they operate.
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