Thirty years ago most production, distribution and sales of sports footwear were located in North America and Western Europe. In contrast, Asia now produces 99% of branded athletic footwear. Sports shoe production is a highly labour-intensive industry, involving 150 different stages or more in the manufacture of a single shoe. Enormous attention is devoted to product innovation and the crafting of a marketable image. In 2002, the top-selling five footwear manufacturers in the US (based on market share in dollars) were Nike (38.97%), Reebok (11.9%), New Balance (11.62%), Adidas (9.72%) and KS-wiss (3.18%). In the same year, these companies had annual turnover of almost US$8 billion, an increase of 4.47% from the previous year (Sporting Goods Intelligence 2003).
Implementing Codes of Conduct:How Businesses Manage Social Performance in Global Supply Chains At the start of the 21st century manufacturing is in the midst of a major transformation, with goods moving from factories in Sao Paolo, Ho Chi Minh and Guanzhou to the shelves of stores in New York, Hamburg and Sydney. As production of goods has become increasingly global, with an impact on workers and societies around the world, the ILO has sought to answer the challenging question: how best to implement voluntary corporate initiatives in value chains that stretch around the globe from a constantly changing supply base of factories both large and small? Based on interviews with hundreds of managers, activists, government officials, factory workers and workers' representatives, Implementing Codes of Conduct represents the most extensive research conducted to date into the emerging nature of corporate social responsibility and global supply chains