Relationship of Almond Kernel Damage Occurrence to Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Success

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Abstract:

Laboratory and field studies are reported that assess navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella (Walker)) development and damage on 11 almond varieties that represent both expected and outlying hull split and shell seal A. transitella damage. Twenty neonate larvae were introduced to almonds of three treatments for each variety: scratched (1 mm scratch through the pellicle), shelled (shell removed but pellicle intact), and unshelled (shell intact and exhibiting the tightest shell seal for the variety). Success was evaluated as moth emergence and degree-days (DD) to emergence. In 2010‐2011 and 2011‐2012, 10 replicate rows containing randomized strands of 20 unshelled, uninfested almonds from each variety were placed in the field for both the fall and spring A. transitella flight. The almonds were returned to the lab before the initiation of the second spring A. transitella flight and categorized by presumed cause of damage (bird damage, A. transitella damage, or both types of damage). Damage, variety, and their interaction significantly impacted A. transitella survival and DDs to emergence in male moths. Female moth DDs to emergence were significantly impacted by damage alone. Damage from birds and A. transitella damage were positively correlated, and A. transitella damage associated with bird damage was more common than A. transitella damage alone. Nonconspecific damage may have a significant impact on A. transitella populations in the field, and bird damage may have repercussions beyond its direct impact on marketable yield.

Keywords: Amyelois transitella; Corvidae; Prunus dulcis; bird damage; degree-days; survivorship

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC12473

Publication date: June 1, 2013

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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