Endoclita signifier Walker (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) has become a new wood borer pest in Eucalyptus plantations in southern China. This article documents survey results of its geographic distribution and host plant range in Guangxi and its morphological measurements, life
cycle and behavior. In total, 83 Eucalyptus growing counties were surveyed. E. signifier was found in 59 counties. Host plants included 31 species in 16 families and 24 genera. Four Eucalyptus hybrid species were recorded as its host plant with E. grandis ×
E. urophylla and E. urophylla × E. grandis infested the heaviest. The infestation of Eucalyptus trees 1‐2 yr old was heavier than that of older trees. Most individuals of E. signifier took 1 yr to complete a generation, overwintering as larvae
in tunnels in wooden stems, and pupating in February of the following year. Adults emerge, mate, and lay eggs in April, and the eggs hatch in late April or early May. Adult emergence peaks between 17:00‐18:59 hours. Mating flights last under 30 min at dusk and the copulation duration
was 24 h. Moths were large, weighting and average of 3.4 g. Eggs and newly hatched larvae were very small, weighing only 0.127 ± 0.001 mg and 0.093 ± 0.017 mg, respectively. The larvae have two distinct development stages. One stage spends 1‐2 mo living in the forest litter,
the second stage then moves to woody stems where it feeds for ≈10 mo. Larvae start boring into hosts between June and November, mainly in July and August. This study indicated that E. signifier, a highly polyphagous native species, has shifted host to exotic Eucalyptus
and can cause significant damage to plantations.
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