Safety Evaluation of Eleven Insecticides to Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

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The safety of 11 pesticides (indoxacarb, chlorfluazuron, azadirachtin, methoxyfenozide, rotenone, spinosad, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, and triazophos) to Trichogramma nubilale (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in this study. The acute toxicity to the adults was investigated using dry-film method. The influences of the pesticides on both parasitic ability and different developmental stages were studied using corn leaves residual method, rice moth egg card dipping method, and T. nubilale parasitized rice moth egg dipping method. Results showed that methoxyfenozide, azadirachtin, and indoxacarb were safe for the whole life cycle of T. nubilale. Chlorfluazuron, rotenone, and acetamiprid had different levels of impacts on different developmental stages, and they should be chosen to be used according to their safety time with reduced exposure levels. Rotenone was safe for the adults but it was harmful to the other stages, whose dosage should be reduced when it was used. Acetamiprid could be applied during the pupae stage. Finally, to avoid large kill, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos, triazophos, and imidacloprid should not be used as they were not safe for any development stage of T. nubilale.

Keywords: T. nubilale; pesticide; safety evaluation

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: February 1, 2013

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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