Demographic Analysis, a Comparison of the Jackknife and Bootstrap Methods, and Predation Projection: A Case Study of Chrysopa pallens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

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The life table of the green lacewing, Chrysopa pallens (Rambur), was studied at 22°C, a photoperiod of 15:9 (L:D) h, and 80% relative humidity in the laboratory. The raw data were analyzed using the age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), the finite rate of increase (λ), the net reproduction rate (r 0), and the mean generation time (T) of Ch. pallens were 0.1258 d−1, 1.1340 d−1, 241.4 offspring and 43.6 d, respectively. For the estimation of the means, variances, and SEs of the population parameters, we compared the jackknife and bootstrap techniques. Although similar values of the means and SEs were obtained with both techniques, significant differences were observed in the frequency distribution and variances of all parameters. The jackknife technique will result in a zero net reproductive rate upon the omission of a male, an immature death, or a nonreproductive female. This result represents, however, a contradiction because an intrinsic rate of increase exists in this situation. Therefore, we suggest that the jackknife technique should not be used for the estimation of population parameters. In predator-prey interactions, the nonpredatory egg and pupal stages of the predator are time refuges for the prey, and the pest population can grow during these times. In this study, a population projection based on the age-stage, two-sex life table is used to determine the optimal interval between releases to fill the predation gaps and maintain the predatory capacity of the control agent.

Keywords: Chrysopa pallens; bootstrap; jackknife; life table; population projection

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: February 1, 2013

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