Cold Tolerance and Disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera:Tephritidae) in ‘Hass’ Avocado
Authors: Ware, A. B.; Du Toit, C.L.N.; Mohamed, S. A.; Nderitu, P. W.; Ekasi, S.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 105, Number 6, December 2012 , pp. 1963-1970(8)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in ‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28°C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2°C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2°C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5°C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2012-12-01
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
- Editorial Board
- Submit a Paper
- Subscribe to this Title
- Information for Advertisers
- Visit this journal's homepage
- ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites