Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum Life Stages Exposed to Elevated Temperatures during Heat Treatments of a Pilot Flour Mill: Influence of Sanitation, Temperatures Attained Among Mills Floors, and Costs
Authors: Brijwani, Monika; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Flinn, Paul W.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Hartzer, Michelle; Hulasare, Rajshekhar
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 105, Number 2, Pages 297-737 , pp. 709-717(9)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to three, 24-h heat treatments by using forced-air gas heaters fueled by propane. Two sanitation levels, dusting of wheat flour and 2-cm-deep flour, were created in 25 plastic bioassay boxes, each holding eggs, young larvae, old larvae, pupae, and adults of T. castaneum plus two temperature sensors. Data loggers (48) were placed on the five mill floors to record air temperatures. The time required to reach 50°C, time above 50°C, and the maximum temperature among mill floors and in bioassay boxes were measured. The maximum temperature in bioassay boxes and in the mill was lower on the first floor than on other floors. This trend was apparent in time required to reach 50°C and time above 50°C, especially in compartments with 2-cm-deep flour. The mean ± SE mortality of T. castaneum life stages on the first floor was 55.5 ± 12.9‐98.6 ± 0.8%; it was 93.2 ± 6.7‐100 ± 0.0% on other floors. Adults were the least susceptible stage. Mortality of T. castaneum stages in compartments with 2-cm-deep flour was generally lower than those with flour dust. Costs for the three heat treatments ranged from US$27,438 to $28,838. An effective heat treatment can be conducted within 24 h, provided temperatures on mill floors reach 50°C in 8‐12 h and are held above 50°C for at least 10‐14 h, with maximum temperatures held between 50 and 60°C.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: April 1, 2012
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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