Bioefficacy of Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae) Rhizome Extracts, (E)-p-Acetoxycinnamyl Alcohol, and (E)-p-Coumaryl Alcohol Ethyl Ether Against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Impact on Detoxification Enzyme Activities

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Abstract:

The application of insecticides to control oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a principal component of the current management of these fruit flies. However, we evaluated four extracts of Alpinia galanga Wild Linn (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes against adult flies and found hexane and ethanol extracts to be most effective (LC50 = 4,866 and 6,337 ppm, respectively, after 24 h). This suggested that both nonpolar and polar compounds could be active in the candidate plant. Accordingly, the hexane extract was further processed to isolate nonpolar active compounds from this plant source. Two compounds, (E)-p-acetoxycinnamyl alcohol and (E)-p-coumaryl alcohol ethyl ether, were identified as active ingredients and found to be more active than total hexane extract (LC50 = 3,654 and 4,044 ppm, respectively, after 24 h). The data suggested that the compounds were not synergistic but may have some additive effect in a mixture. The activity of the hexane extract against detoxification enzymes, carboxylesterase (CE) and glutathione transferase (GST) also was determined in vitro. CE was inhibited by 70%, whereas GST was not significantly inhibited. Insect CEs mediate insecticide resistance via their induction; therefore, inhibition of these enzymes by plant allelochemicals could be a useful alternative approach for the management of the pest in the field.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga; Bactrocera dorsalis; carboxylesterase; glutathione transferase; toxicity

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC11080

Publication date: October 1, 2011

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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