Cold Susceptibility and Disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Oranges
To develop a cold disinfestation treatment for the fruit fly Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) that is rapidly spreading across Africa, research was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, using flies from a laboratory culture and ‘Valencia’ orange
(Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) as the host. The developmental rate of B. invadens in Valencia oranges was determined at 28°C, and the third instar was found to be the least susceptible of the egg and larval life stages to cold treatment at 1.1°C in oranges. When 22,449 B. invadens third
instars were exposed in oranges to a cold treatment with an approximate midpoint of 1.1 ± 0.5°C, the results suggested that a period of 16 d would be worthwhile verifying on a larger scale in oranges. Results from the first replicate of 16,617 larvae showed no survivors, but the
second replicate of 23,536 larvae had three survivors. Because a longer cold treatment based on a mean temperature of 1.1°C would create logistical difficulties for some export markets, further replicates were conducted at an approximate midpoint of 0.5°C and at mean hourly maximum
of 0.9 ± 0.5°C, for 16 d. After three replicates, in which 65,752 B. invadens third instars in total were treated with no survivors, the Japanese requirement of 99.99% mortality at the 95% confidence level was surpassed. The following treatment protocol for B. invadens larvae in
oranges can therefore be recommended: fruit pulp to be maintained at temperatures of 0.9°C or lower for 16 consecutive days.
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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