South Africa currently exports fresh citrus (Citrus spp.) fruit to Japan using an in-transit cold treatment protocol of 14 d or 12 d at temperatures <0°C for treatment of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in ‘Clementine’ mandarins (Citrus reticulata
Blanco) and other citrus types, respectively. To reduce the risk of chilling injury with this treatment, research was conducted with temperatures >0°C. Earlier South African research had shown that young (6-d-old) larvae were slightly more tolerant of cold treatment and that there were
no significant differences between cold tolerance of these larvae in different citrus types [oranges, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; grapefruits, Citrus paradisi Macfad.; lemons, Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f.; and mandarins). Due to their ready availability, ‘Valencia’ oranges were used
in this study. When 62,492 larvae in total were treated in three replicates at a mean temperature of 1.5°C for 16 d, there were three larval survivors. The trial was therefore repeated with oranges using a 16-d period at a mean temperature of 1.0°C and a mean of 1.4°C for the hourly
maximum probe readings. Three replicates were again conducted and the resultant mean mortality in the control was 8.1% of 21,801 larvae, whereas the cold treatment mortality was 100% of 71,756 larvae. This treatment at a mean temperature of 1°C exceeded the Japanese confidence level requirement
and also exceeded the Probit-9 mortality level, but not at a confidence level of 95%. These data support the establishment of a treatment protocol of 16 d at temperatures <1.4°C, commencing once all fruit pulp probes reach a temperature of 1°C or lower.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.