Effects of Fertilization of Four Hemlock Species on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Growth and Feeding Preference of Predators
Authors: Joseph, S. V.; Braman, S. K.; Hanula, J. L.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 104, Number 1, February 2011 , pp. 288-298(11)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:Understanding how fertilization affects host resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is important because fertilizers are often used to grow resistant selections to a suitable size for testing. We evaluated four hemlock species (Tsuga) under three different fertilizer regimes to assess whether fertility affected resistance to the adelgid and to determine whether it affected feeding preferences of the adelgid predators Laricobius nigrinus Fender and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji & McClure). Treatments were long-term fertilization (from June 2008 to June 2009), short-term fertilization (from March to June 2009), and no fertilizer. Fertilizer was applied biweekly with 240 ppm N by using water-soluble fertilizer (N‐P‐K, 20:20:20). Plants (>1 yr old) were artificially infested with adelgids on 31 March 2009. Among unfertilized hemlocks (n = 10 per species), foliar N was highest in Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière and lowest in T. chinensis (Franch.) E. Pritz. Significantly more progredien ovisacs or sisten eggs were present on T. mertensiana than on the other hemlock species with none on unfertilized T. chinensis. A. tsugae adults on T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. were unaffected by fertility, but densities of developing A. tsugae nymphs were higher on unfertilized T. heterophylla plants than on fertilized T. heterophylla plants regardless of fertilizer treatment. Both L. nigrinus and S. tsugae consumed more adelgid eggs that developed on fertilized T. canadensis than from unfertilized plants. The predators did not exhibit this preference for adelgid eggs from females that developed on T. heterophylla or T. mertensiana.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2011
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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