Mortality of Four Stored Product Pests in Stored Wheat When Exposed to Doses of Three Entomopathogenic Nematodes
The insecticidal effect of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae), Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Nematoda: Steinernematidae), and Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) against Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia
kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) (larvae), lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) (adults), rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (adults), and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin
du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (adults and larvae) was examined under laboratory conditions in wheat, Triticum aestivum L. The nematodes were applied at the following doses: 0 (control), 100, 500, 1,000, 1,500, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 infective juveniles (IJs) per ml, corresponding
to 10, 50, 100, 150, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 IJs per insect, and their infectivity was tested at 20 and 30°C after 4 and 8 d of exposure. For E. kuehniella larvae wheat treatments with S. feltiae provided mortality that ranged from 36.7 to 78.3% whereas no mortality was noted
in the treatment with S. carpocapsae at 100 IJs per ml at 20 or at 30°C. Also, at 20°C, in wheat treated with H. bacteriophora at 100 IJs per ml, very few larvae were dead. For R. dominica adults, at 20°C, the mortality of adults in wheat treated with S.
feltiae and S. carpocapsae did not exceed 23.3 and 41.7%, respectively, at 20,000 IJs per ml, with no significant differences among doses. In the case of S. oryzae adults, the mortality was very low at all doses, and temperatures and did not exceed 9%. Mortality of T.
confusum adults did not exceed 17% regardless of the entomopathogenic nematode species tested. In contrast, mortality of T. confusum larvae was notably higher and exceeded 56% in wheat treated with 10,000 or 20,000 IJs per ml of S. feltiae at 20°C. Unlike S. feltiae
and S. carpocapsae, the application of H. bacteriophora resulted in lower mortality levels. Generally, the increase of temperature reduced the mortality levels of the T. confusum larvae. In most cases, the efficacy level of the tested entomopathogenic nematode species
increased with the dose and decreased with the increase of temperature.
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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