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We analyzed the accumulation of six phytohormones and phytohormone-related compounds in a wheat, Triticum aestivium L., genotype, ‘Molly’, after attacks by avirulent and virulent Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), larvae, respectively,
and we examined the expression of genes in the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway by Northern blot analysis. Compared with uninfested plants, attacks by avirulent larvae resulted in increased accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) by 11.3- and 8.2-fold, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) by 36.4-and 18.7-fold,
18:3 fatty acid by 4.5- and 2.2-fold, and 18:1 fatty acid by 1.8- and 1.9-fold at 24 and 72 h post-initial attack (hpia), respectively, but an 20% decrease in JA accumulation at 24 hpia at the attack site. Attacks by the virulent larvae did not affect the accumulation of SA, OPDA, and 18:3
and 18:1 fatty acids but dramatically increased the concentration of auxin (AUX) from undetectable in uninfested plants to 381.7 ng/g fresh weight at 24 hpia and 71.0 ng/g fresh weight at 72 hpia in infested plants. Transcript levels of genes encoding lipoxygenase 2, allene oxide synthase,
and Arabidopsis storage protein 2 were increased after avirulent larval attacks but decreased after virulent larval attacks. Our results suggest that OPDA and SA may act together in wheat resistance to the Hessian fly, whereas AUX may play a role in the susceptibility of wheat plants.
The increased OPDA accumulation after avirulent larval attacks was at least partially regulated through gene transcription.
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.