Diazinon Resistance in Different Selected Strains of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Northern Iran
Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a cosmopolitan and destructive pest in rice fields of the world. This pest was reported in 1973 in Iran, and it has since spread widely in rice, Oryza sativa L., fields throughout the country. In this study, we tried to evaluate comparative toxicity of diazinon in five colonies of C. suppressalis, collected from Babol (Ba), Amol (Am) of Mazandaran Province and Rasht (Ra), Sheikhmahale (Sh), and Gourabzarmikh (Go) of Guilan Province, northern Iran. The LD50 values were compared. We also evaluated the general esterases, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione transferase (GST), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities from the five populations. The LD50 values of Ra, Ba, Am, and Sh (12.64, 11.4, 7.17, and 3.71 μg/mg larva−1) were 13.67-, 12.33-, 7.75-, and 4.02-fold higher than Go population (0.924 μg/mg larva−1). Using α-naphthyl acetate as substrate, the general esterase activities in Ra, Ba, Am, and Sh colonies were, respectively, 1.81-, 1.68-, 1.75-, and 1.35-fold more than those in Go population. When β-naphthyl acetate was used as the substrate, activity ratio was measured 1.98-, 2.58-, 1.25-, and 1.24-fold compared with the Go population. Glutathione transferase activities in Ra, Ba, Am, and Sh populations were 1.27-, 1.68-, 0.98-, and 1.7-fold more than those in Go, when 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was used as the substrate. When 1,2-dichloro-4-nitro-benzene was used as the substrate, activity ratio was measured 1.14-, 1.42-, 0.56-, and 0.95-fold compared with Go population. The ALP activity demonstrated a significant difference among these populations and in Ra, Ba, Am, and Sh larvae were 3.54-, 4.62-, 3.84-, and 2.18-fold more than Go. The AChE inhibition or I 50 value was 0.19, 0.22, 0.31, 0.19, and 0.26 mM in Ra, Ba, Am, Sh and Go populations, respectively. However, the results showed no significant differences in studied colonies. These biochemical characterizations of general esterases ALP, GST, and AChE were consistent with diazinon bioassay in the five populations. It is inferred from increased esterase, alkaline phosphatase and glutathione transferase, activities that might play an important role in the increasing resistance in C. suppressalis to diazinon among these five populations.
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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